Kimberlites are volcanic eruptions that bring material from the depths where diamonds can form. Yet, unlike many geologic processes, a kimberlite eruption could launch rocks from the mantle at over 250 kilometers an hour!
What type of volcanic deposit may contain diamonds such as the diamond mines of Kimberly South Africa?
Kimberlite is an igneous rock, which sometimes contains diamonds. It is named after the town of Kimberley in South Africa, where the discovery of an 83.5-carat (16.70 g) diamond called the Star of South Africa in 1869 spawned a diamond rush and the digging of the open-pit mine called the Big Hole.
What volcanoes produce diamonds?
Diamonds are brought to the surface from the mantle in a rare type of magma called kimberlite and erupted at a rare type of volcanic vent called a diatreme or pipe.
Is there diamonds in volcanoes?
So how is it that diamonds can be found among us? The answer lies in rare and unusual volcanoes called kimberlites. These deeply-seated volcanic eruptions can sometimes pick up diamonds, along with other minerals and rock fragments, and blast them to the top.
Can diamonds be found in lava flows?
A recent paper by Galimov and others in American Mineralogist details the tiny diamonds they found in lavas from Tolbachik. These crystals are less an a 0.03 inches and mostly found in the rocks made during the lava fountain phase of the eruption.
What type of rock are diamonds?
Background. The diamond is the hardest natural substance known. It is found in a type of igneous rock known as kimberlite. The diamond itself is essentially a chain of carbon atoms that have crystallized.
How are kimberlite diamonds mined?
The kimberlite is extracted in enormous quantities using huge trucks and giant steam shovels; the pipe is mined from the surface as an open pit. When it gets too deep, underground mining may begin. Because of the huge quantities of rock involved, the mining is highly mechanized.
Do volcanoes expel diamonds?
No, diamonds have to come from the Earth’s mantle, hundreds of kilometers beneath our feet. … The answer lies in some of the oddest and rarest volcanoes on the planet. Kimberlites are volcanic eruptions that bring material from the depths where diamonds can form.
Are diamonds found in kimberlite?
The xenoliths found in kimberlite include diamonds, and the vast majority of the diamonds mined in the world today is found in kimberlite ores. Exactly how kimberlites acquire the necessary buoyancy for their long ascent through Earth’s crust has, however, been something of a mystery.
Does lava destroy diamonds?
The melting point of Diamond at about 100,000 atm is 4200 K, which is much higher than the temperature of lava. So, it is impossible for lava to melt a diamond. But the twist is that at atmospheric pressure, it is almost impossible to melt diamond as its burning point is 900 °C (1173 K).
Where are diamonds found?
Diamonds are present in about 35 countries. South Africa, Russia and Botswana are the main producers of gem diamond while Australia produces most of the industrial diamond. They are also found in India, Russia, Siberia, Brazil, China, Canada and the United States.
How can I find diamonds?
There are three methods of diamond searching. Surface searching consists of walking up and down the rows of dirt looking for diamonds lying on top of the ground. This is the most productive method following a hard rain. Rain washes the soil away, leaving diamonds and other rocks and minerals exposed on the surface.
Can you find diamonds in volcanic rock?
Australian scientists have uncovered a a rare volcanic rock in Antarctica that carries diamonds to the Earth’s surface. The rock formations, called kimberlites, had been discovered on every continent except Antarctica until now.
Are diamonds found in Obsidian?
Some basalts contain gemstones like corundum, zircon and garnets. Another volcanic rock is called kimberlite. Kimberlite pipes are the most major source of diamond. Occasionally, varieties of volcanic glass, obsidian, are cut and fashioned as gemstones.